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Diensthundpruefungsordnung 1 (DPO-1)

DPO-1 certification examinations should be administered only after both dog and handler have completed a course of training which is designed for the specific examination to be administered. Afterwards, to maintain certification, the dog should be re-examined on an annual basis. This is to assure performance quality-control over the career of the dog.

DPO-1 competitions are common and not held to the same constraints as certification examinations. A variety of DPO competition standards exist and any of these may be employed for competition events. DPO-1 competitions are merely sporting events and do not carry the same efficacy as certifications.

A government entity should be responsible, accountable, and liable for the training and certification of police service dogs and handlers. The skill level of the Dog being examined should be declared by competent and certified police service dog judges, familiar with the individual certifications.

A certification is an official police function. Accordingly, official uniforms shall be worn by any handler presenting a dog for an examination. Handlers are expected to display appropriate tactical skills during the course of the examination. No leather collars shall be permitted during an examination.

In the event a handler or dog does not exhibit suitable skill during an examination, no certification shall be issued at that time. The examination may be re-taken within a reasonable time frame, to be established by the respective judge or agency.

A certified handler or dog is not prohibited from participating in other types of dog trials, so long as the event carries significant benefit for the police function. Handlers should exercise caution when determining whether or not to participate in such trials. Handlers should seek competent input from their administrators or other experienced handlers or trainers as to the degree of benefit versus the risk.

In the interest of the equal treatment for certificants and objective evaluations, the following should be ensured:

  1. All exercises are administered on one day;
  2. All simulated suspects are strangers to the dog; and
  3. All locations utilized in the exercises are foreign to the dog.

Each PSP1 examination shall begin with exercise #1 to establish gunsureness, mental stability, and combat skill. Then the patrol dog judge shall determine the order in which the exercises will be administered. A dog which does not defend its handler sufficiently or exhibits gunshyness shall not certify. A dog should exhibit a "suitable" skill level in the obedience phase to continue in the examination process.

The patrol dog handler and dog form an operational team, therefore, a dog is to be examined with the respective handler it is to be deployed with. The dog may be considered functional if it achieves a skill rating of "Suitable" in each of the following individual behaviors.

  1. Detaining a submissive person;
  2. Subduing a hostile or fleeing person;
  3. Releasing a person on command;
  4. Indicating the presence of a person and evidence;
  5. Handler skill.

Certified detector dogs are permitted the option of substituting the last skill rating for the scentwork grade in this examination.

Voice commands or hand signals are permitted. Repeating a command or a signal is permitted only if it is evident the dog did not hear or see it or if it is integral to the exercise. The Judge shall determine this situation.

Commands or signals other than those declared as official shall be considered handler Help. Excessively loud commands are not allowed, nor are objects or food or other such types of motivation. The dog is expected to respond to commands or signals joyfully and quickly.

All exercises begin and end from the heel position. This is exemplified when the handler stands upright with the dog sitting at the left or right side, depending on the manner of training.

The handler shall present him/herself in a professional manner and is permitted to ask clarification questions prior to the start of the examination.

The patrol dog judge shall issue a weapon (pistol, knife, etc.) to the perpetrator in at least one of the apprehension exercises. The weapon shall be carried such that it can be discovered only by a careful frisk.

The patrol dog judge shall determine the starting point for all exercises, not the handler.


Definitions of Behavior
Heel
The dog shall accompany the handler joyfully and attentively, keeping its shoulder in line with the handler's torso. Forging or lagging, wide or crowding behavior is faulty. Only at a change of pace may the handler issue an additional command or signal. The normal and fast paces shall be distinctly different.

Sit
If the handler halts, the dog shall, without command or signal, sit immediately in the heel position. The handler shall not move in order to favor the dog's position, but rather, the dog shall position itself according to the handler.

Down
If the handler commands or signals the dog to down, it shall comply immediately. If this occurs during heeling, the dog shall lie parallel to the handler. If this occurs during an apprehension task i.e., detaining, pursuit, etc., the dog shall lie facing the relevant person. If this occurs during a scentwork task, i.e., evidence indication, the dog shall lie facing the relevant object.

Recall
If the handler recalls the dog, it shall respond immediately and run at top speed to the handler. The "Front" position is prescribed for a recall. For examination purposes, the dog shall remain at the front position for three seconds before being commanded to the Heel position.

Jump
If the handler commands or signals the dog to jump an obstacle, it should respond immediately and not touch as it goes over.

Behavior in Public
If the handler walks through a group of people, the dog should remain at heel - neutral and safe - to the people. Touching or sniffing is faulty. The handler shall ensure sufficient space between the dog and others. This neutral and safe demeanor shall be maintained, even if the handler speaks or a person speaks to the handler.

Surveillance
If the handler assumes a surveillance position with the dog, the prescribed posture shall be a kneeling handler beside a sitting dog. The handler may hold the dog by the collar. The dog shall be attentive to the terrain being surveilled. The dog shall remain quiet and attentive, even if the handler addresses a person.

Pursuit
If the handler commands or signals the dog to pursue a person, the dog shall respond immediately by running at top speed.

Suspect Search
If the handler initiates a suspect search, she/he shall begin it from the heel position and off-leash. The dog shall search as commanded or signaled, purposefully, intensely, and systematically. The command or signal may be issued together with the name of the dog. The handler may give additional commands or signals as the dog is directed to each new quadrant of the search area.

Criminal Evidence Search
If the handler initiates a criminal evidence search she/he shall begin it from the heel position and off-leash. The dog shall search as commanded or signaled, purposefully, intensely, and systematically. The command or signal may be issued together with the name of the dog. The handler may give additional commands or signals as the dog is directed to each new quadrant of the search area.

Pinpointing (aka Finding)
If a patrol dog is deployed on a search for a person or criminal evidence, it shall do so as described herein. If it perceives odor from a person or evidence, it shall immediately pinpoint the source of the odor. Pinpointing differs from searching in that it is evaluated as independent behavior manifested by the dog, whereas searching is a handler-controlled behavior.

Suspect Indication
If a patrol dog locates a person while searching, it shall respond by immediately and persistently barking to advise the Handler.

Evidence Indication
If a patrol dog locates evidence while searching, it shall respond by immediately lying down or sitting. The evidence shall not be touched nor picked up nor contaminated in any way.

Detaining a Passive Person
If a patrol dog locates a passive person while searching, it shall immediately, intensely, and persistently hold the person without physical contact. The dog may assume a posture of sitting, standing, downing or circling to aid in the task. A detaining patrol dog shall not invade the passive person's body space. Optimal distance is 1-2 meters. Should the dog detain from behind the suspect's hiding place or circle the entire location, this is not faulty. For evaluation purposes, if a muzzled detaining dog bumps a passive person with the muzzle or if an unmuzzled dog bites a passive person, it is faulty.

Subduing a Fleeing Person
If a patrol dog engages a fleeing person while searching or pursuing, it shall exhibit considerable pain compliance through biting to subdue. Considerable combat behavior should enhance the pain compliance. If the dog is muzzled, as in training or certification, intense bumping and wrestling should be evident.

Subduing a Hostile Person
If a patrol dog engages a hostile person while searching or pursuing, it shall exhibit considerable pain compliance through biting to subdue. Considerable combat behavior should enhance the pain compliance. If the dog is muzzled, as in training or certification, intense bumping and wrestling should be evident.

Release
If a handler commands a patrol dog to release, it shall respond by:
  1. Immediately letting go if engaged or backing off if detaining;
  2. Lie down;
  3. Remain quiet; and
  4. Remain alert for furtive movement.

A proper release is as follows. On a suspect control command such as "Stay Still" the dog shall immediately let go. If a dog control command is given such as "Down" the dog shall immediately lie down. Reasonable human behavior from the suspect shall be tolerated by the dog when commanded to release.

Frisk
If a handler conducts a frisk of a suspect subsequent to a release command to the dog, the suspect may be instructed to step back or the dog may be commanded to the heel position, whichever is more favorable. Regardless of where placed, the dog shall remain quiet and attentive to the suspect, prepared to respond to a furtive movement. The Frisk behavior, for examination purposes, ends when the handler has returned to the dog and begins the next task.

Transport
If a handler initiates a transport of a suspect in custody, the dog shall respond by remaining at the heel position, attentive to the suspect. The front transport is optimal and performed at a distance of about three meters. The handler shall issue appropriate commands to direct the arrestee's movements. For examination purposes, the transport is ended when the arrestee has gone about five meters once remanded.


Examination Tasks
Obedience, Gunsureness, and Handler Protection
The handler and dog assume a heel position as directed by the judge. The handler shall then command or signal the dog to heel as she/he walks straight ahead for about 20 meters. After this distance, the handler shall demonstrate a right-turn and then a left-turn. After the left turn the handler shall continue for another 20 meters.

Next, the handler shall heel in serpentine fashion through a group of three handlers whose dogs are lying at their sides. After the first time through, the handler shall execute an about-turn and pass through a second time.

Next, the handler shall leave the group and change to a jogging pace. After about 10 meters, she/he shall approach a hurdle which is about one meter high. The handler shall command or signal the dog to jump the hurdle and then return to the heel position, maintaining the jogging pace. The handler shall then continue about 20 meters and then command or signal the dog to down-in-motion. The handler shall then continue jogging to a predetermined location and go out of sight.

A short time after the handler goes out of sight, the judge shall have two shots fired at a distance of about 20 meters from the dog. After one minute the judge shall instruct the handler to leave cover and take a position about 40 meters from the dog. At this point, the handler shall recall the dog and then command or signal it to go to the heel position.

Next, the handler shall begin heeling toward a walking line of at least three people. The dog shall be in position such that it is between the handler and the people as they pass each other. The handler and dog shall move past the people and, when about five meters beyond, shall turn back toward them. She/he shall overtake the group and order them to halt. She/he shall also halt at a distance of about three meters and face the group. She/he shall then conduct a field interview with each person.

Either the second or third person will attack the handler while being interviewed. The handler shall not know ahead of time which person will become hostile. The handler shall take evasive action and the dog must defend its handler immediately and attempt to subdue. The attacker shall brandish an impact weapon and inflict at least two strikes. Anytime after the second strike, the handler may take control of the situation and command or signal the dog to release. In the event the second person commits the assault, the Handler shall complete the interview of the third person after arresting the attacker.

Subsequently, the attacker is frisked, arrested, and transported to the judge for remanding.

Procedures

  1. The dog should be muzzled and shall be off-leash during this task.
  2. The group of handlers and their muzzled dogs shall be positioned about 10 meters apart. These dogs shall be maintained on-leash.
  3. After the handler and dog have exited the group, they are excused from the immediate area.
  4. The hurdle shall be about one meter high, 1.5 meters wide, and see-through, such as chain-link.
  5. The firearm used to evaluate gunsureness should be about as loud as a 9mm handgun. The distance from gun to dog should be at least 20 meters.
  6. The second group shall be moving parallel to and about two meters from the approaching handler and dog. The members of the group should be about three meters from each other. They shall be moving at a walking speed.
  7. The strikes to the dog shall be of medium intensity on the less sensitive parts of the body. The attacker shall comply to the handler's lawful order to desist.

Tracking
The handler shall deploy the dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the dog's ability to track a suspect's escape route. A crime scene, including an object of evidence (car, briefcase, etc.) marks the starting point of the track. The tracklayer shall depart from the object and travel about 200 meters to a hiding spot. Along the way she/he shall make two turns and drop one item of realistic evidence. The handler shall deploy the dog to cast about for the track, then follow it. The dog shall Indicate the evidence, as well as the passive hidden person.

Procedures

  1. The judge shall determine the place where the initial evidence object is to be placed.
  2. A "scentpad" is not permitted. Footprints should not be visible.
  3. The tracklayer shall walk in a natural manner and wear ordinary shoes. She/he is forbidden from making abnormal footfalls.
  4. The track shall not be a defined pattern and shall be laid reasonable to the lay of the land. Unnaturally sharp or acute-angle turns are not realistic and not appropriate for the examination. Obtuse-angle turns are permitted.
  5. The evidence items shall not be larger than 25cm and shall be similar color as the terrain.
  6. The evidence shall be thoroughly permeated with human odor.
  7. The evidence may be placed anywhere along the track, except in the first or last 20 meters.
  8. The track must have at least one change of terrain.
  9. The dog may track on-leash or off-leash and at any length, long or short.
  10. The track concludes at the hiding place where the passive person is hiding. She/he may be in any position and will be totally passive and compliant when encountered.
  11. The dog shall demonstrate an Indication on the suspect as defined previously.
  12. The dog may exhibit either "precision" tracking or "street" tracking to accomplish this task. Neither is evaluated superior to the other.
Criminal Evidence Search
The handler shall deploy the dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the dog's ability to locate and indicate criminal evidence. The search area shall be about 800m size. The judge shall place four contaminated realistic objects in the search area and the dog shall be given 10 minutes to locate and indicate.

Procedures

  1. The search area shall be realistic and typical of deployment scenarios.
  2. The dog shall deploy unmuzzled and off-leash.
  3. The handler and dog shall be out of sight when the objects are placed. They shall be composed of four different materials and not be over 10cm in size. The objects shall be similar color as the terrain and shall not be placed in plain sight.
  4. The objects shall be thoroughly permeated with human odor.
  5. The handler shall inform the Judge of the indication behavior prior to deploying the dog. The dog shall exhibit the same indication behavior at all objects.

Building Search
The handler shall deploy the dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the dog's ability to locate and indicate a suspect hiding in a building. The building area shall be about 1000m size.

The handler shall issue at least two official announcements prior to deploying the dog. After the second announcement, the handler may deploy at will.

When the dog has located the suspect, it shall immediately and intensely Indicate. Upon hearing the dog's Indication, the handler may tactically advance to the location. When the handler arrives at the hiding spot, she/he may take control of the situation as circumstances dictate.

The handler shall frisk, arrest, and transport the person to the judge outside the building.

Procedures

  1. The dog shall deploy muzzled and off-leash.
  2. Numerous hiding spots shall be available in the building. This is intended to ensure that the dog's skill level may be accurately evaluated.
  3. The suspect shall be placed such that direct contact by the dog is possible. The suspect may be in a standing, sitting, or prone position, according to the environment available in the building.

Suspect Search
The handler shall deploy the dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the dog's ability to search for and locate suspects in large search areas.

Prior to deployment, the judge shall place a person in an area about 100m X 200m size. The person shall be lying in a prone position.

When the dog finds the person, it shall Indicate the location immediately to the handler. When the dog indicates, the handler shall tactically advance to the location.

The handler shall determine the identity of the person and discover she/he is NOT the suspect in question. At this time, the handler shall dismiss the person from the search area.

Procedures

  1. The dog shall deploy muzzled and off-leash.
  2. The search area shall have considerable undergrowth or other conditions which dramatically reduce visual abilities.
  3. The person placed in this scenario represents an innocent citizen inadvertently in the search area. She/he shall wear inconspicuous clothing and lie in a natural manner. The person shall not be visible to the Handler until the last moment.
  4. The judge shall dictate the starting point for the deployment, after considering wind, etc., in order to provide the dog with optimal chances for success.
  5. The handler shall deploy the dog to conduct a systematic search through this area.
  6. If the dog overruns or the boundary of the search area slightly or does not go completely to the boundary during the process of searching, this is not faulty.
  7. The handler is not required to follow an exact center-line, but rather, may follow the lay of the land during his/her advance.

Pursuit and Apprehension in Sight
The handler shall deploy the dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the dog's ability to pursue and subdue a suspect who is fleeing in plain view.

The handler and dog shall assume a surveillance position at a point designated by the judge.

A suspect shall appear at a distance of about 100 meters. The handler shall then issue two official announcements. After the first announcement, the suspect shall flee.

After the second announcement, the handler shall deploy the dog. The dog shall pursue at top speed. When the dog is en route, the suspect shall stop and face the dog. The surrendering behavior shall be evident and she/he shall then remain motionless. The handler now has the option of permitting the dog to Detain or commanding the Dog to Down while en route.

If the dog detains, it shall do so without physical contact. When the handler arrives at a distance of at least ten paces, she/he shall command the dog to assume a backup position.

If the dog downs en route, it shall do so immediately upon receiving the command. This procedure is intended to result in the dog being commanded to down at a distance in which it may remain functional in the guard position. If the distance it downs at is greater than reasonably functional, it shall be considered faulty. Once down, it shall then await the handler's approach and, if the distance between the dog and suspect is more than two meters, they shall advance together at heel for the remainder of the distance. Upon arrival at the suspect's location, the handler shall command the dog to assume a backup position.

It shall now remain quiet and alert, ready to respond to a furtive movement. The handler shall then frisk, arrest, and transport the suspect back to the judge for remanding.

Procedure

  1. The dog shall deploy muzzled and off-leash.
  2. The suspect shall remain passive and motionless once the surrendering behavior is exhibited. If the detaining dog circles or positions itself behind the suspect, she/he may turn in order to maintain a frontal view of the dog.




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