Just as the human population has become much more mobile, so has the
canine population, resulting in potential exposure to infectious agents,
parasites, and environmental hazards not found in the home environment.
The determina-tion of past and anticipated future travel of dogs during
each preventive care visit allows for greater individualiza-tion of
preventive care and diagnostic testing plans.
Medical Record Documentation
At the time of vaccine administration, the following infor-mation should
be recorded in the patient’s permanent med-ical record: date of vaccine
administration, identity (employee name, initials, or code) of the person
administer-ing the vaccine, vaccine name, lot or serial number, manu-facturer
and expiration date, and site and route of vaccine administration. The
use of peel-off vaccine labels and stamps that imprint the medical record
with the outline of a dog facilitate this type of record keeping. Adverse
events should be recorded in a manner that will alert all staff mem-bers
during future visits. Informed consent should be docu-mented in the
medical record in order to demonstrate that relevant information was
provided to the client and that the client authorized the procedure.
At the very least, this nota-tion should indicate that a discussion
of risks and benefits took place prior to vaccination.
The burgeoning knowledge in the fields of vaccinology and immunology,
together with the continued enhancements of vaccine efficacy and safety,
have placed the traditional approaches to vaccine use in doubt and engaged
our profes-sion in a long overdue debate. What is clear is that the
com-plexity of the issues involved make it impossible for our profession
to make blanket statements with respect to vac-cine selection and use—one
size simply does not fit all. This underscores the fact that vaccination
is a medical pro-cedure and, as such, needs to be tailored to the individual
and administered under a valid VCPR on the basis of informed consent.
Not all vaccines are indicated in all ani-mals and no vaccine should
be given without a thorough knowledge of the risks of acquiring the
disease, the poten-tial for adverse reactions to vaccination, and the
health of the animal in question. Current knowledge clearly indicates
the need to refine vaccine selection and to re-establish vac-cine protocols
when revaccinating animals >1 year of age that have undergone an initial
vaccine series. In the case of core vaccines (i.e., CDV, CPV, CAV-2,
and rabies virus), every 3 years is considered adequate to maintain
appropri-ate protection. Regardless of your eventual decision, we challenge
you to keep an open mind and critically evaluate and incorporate new
information as it becomes available.
a McDonough P, personal communication; Cornell University Diagnostic
Laboratory, Ithaca, NY
b Schultz RD, unpublished results; University of Wisconsin, Madison,
c Titercheck; Synbiotics Corp., San Diego, CA
The members of the Task Force would like to recognize Drs. W. Jean Dodds,
Larry Glickman, Craig Greene, Dennis Macy, Niels Pedersen, Larry Swango,
and Alice Wolf for their pioneering work to raise both the knowledge
and awareness of vaccinology and issues pertaining to DOI within the
veterinary profession. The members of the Task Force would also like
to thank Dr. Walt Ingwersen for his editorial assistance.
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