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|01/||How To Housebreak A Puppy or Older Dog|
|02/||The Problem with All-Positive Training|
|03/||My Dog is Dog Aggressive|
|04/||How to Fit a Prong Collar|
|05/||Introducing a New Dog into a Home with Other Dogs|
Written upon request of the FCI Commission for Utility Dogs by
Louis Quadroni (CH)
Ferdinand Ritter (CZ)
Hans Rüdenauer (D)
Marcel Leclerc (Rudy Cattrysse, Fons Van den Bosch) (B)
Jacques Wildanger (Lux)
Eberhard Strasser (A)
The present RIC was adopted by the FCI General Committee in Rome in November 2002
Effective from January 1st 2003
The changes in bold and italic characters brought to page 8 (Titles) and to the Tracking dog – examination IPO-FH were approved by the FCI General Committee in Berlin, October 31 2007. They are effective from January 1st, 2008
FCI = International Working Dog Federation
IPO = International Trial Rules
LAO = National Organization
AKZ = Trainings Degree
PR = Trial Judge
PL = Trial Chairperson
HL = Helper
HF = Handler
FL = Tracklater
HZ Verbal Command
NOTE: The verbal commands contained in this text, must be replaced with the verbal commands used by each National Organization, when translating the rulebook.
As soon as these rules become effective, all previous rules become invalid. If this is a translation, the original German text is binding when in doubt.
These guidelines were drawn up by the FCI Working Dog Committee and were approved and voted on by the FCI on November 2002 in Rome.
These guidelines will become effective on 1st January 2003 and will replace all previous regulations.
These guidelines were drawn up and discussed by the committee in German. In case of doubt, especially when translating into other languages, the original German text is binding. These guidelines apply to all countries that are members of the FCI. All trials conducted under international trial rules (trials and tournaments) must comply with these rules.
Trials and tournaments should serve two purposes. The first purpose is to determine a dog’s suitability for a particular use by obtaining a title. The other purpose is to help to maintain or increase the health and working ability, as far as working dog characteristics are concerned, from generation to generation within the breeding program. They also help to maintain and increase health and fitness. A working title is also considered proof of a dog’s breed worthiness.
We suggest that the national organizations (LAO) promote the IPO. International events should be conducted under IPO Rules. All trials and tournaments are subject to sports related principles regarding the hosting of events and regarding the conduct of the participants. The regulations stated in these guidelines are binding for all persons involved. All competitors have to comply with the same performance requirements. The events are open to the public. The membership must be informed publicly of the location of the event and the time the event starts.
Trials and tournaments must comply with the complete examination levels or separate complete parts of a particular examination level. In any case, successfully completed entire examination level at an event reflects a valid training degree. The training degrees must be recognized by all countries that are members of the FCI.
IPO1-3 trials as well as IPO-FH trials can be held throughout the entire year if weather permits and health and safety of people and animals are not put at risk. Otherwise, the event can not be held. This decision is made by the Trial Judge. The LAO is entitled to make restrictions regarding the trial season for their area.
Trial Organization/Trial Chairperson (PL)
The trial chairperson is responsible to organize the event. The trial chairperson handles or supervises all tasks necessary to prepare and conduct a trial. He/she insures the correct course of events and must be at the judge’s disposal throughout the entire event.
Therefore, the Trail Chairperson is not allowed to show a dog or take on other duties. The Trail Chairperson is responsible for:
The chairperson must inform the judge three days prior to the event of the location of the trial, the time the trial starts, directions to the trial site, type of examinations and number of dogs. If the trial chairperson fails to provide the judge with this information the judge has the right to withdraw from his/her appointment.
The event authorization form must be presented to the judge prior to the start of the trial.
The officers of the hosting club are responsible for inviting a judge who is authorized to conduct IPO trials, or the National Organization (LAO) can assign a judge. For World Championships the judges are assigned by the FCI Working Dog Committee. The hosting club determines how many judges are invited. However, one judge may judge a maximum of 30 individual phases per day.
IPO-FH, IPO1, IPO2, IPO3
equivalent to three phases each
For major events scheduled by the (LAO) National Organization, the LAO can establish special regulations.
The judge is not permitted to evaluate dogs that are owned by him or that he has in his possession. The judge is not permitted to evaluate dogs that are owned or in the possession of a person living in the same household with him. He is not permitted to evaluate dogs that are shown by a person living in the same household. In the event that a judge is appointed by the LAO or the Working Dog Committee of the FCI this rule does not apply.
The judge is not permitted to influence or distract a dog’s performance through his behavior. The judge is responsible for the compliance and correct application of the valid trial regulations. The judge is entitled to terminate a trial if the trial is not conducted in compliance with the trial regulations and his instructions are ignored. In such a case the judge must submit a report to the LAO.
A judge’s decision is final and incontestable. Any form of criticism regarding the evaluation can lead to dismissal from the site and can eventually be followed by disciplinary measures. In justified cases, regarding a violation of the trial regulations on the judge’s part and not a judge’s decision, a complaint can be filed within eight days.
The complaint is submitted in writing, signed by the plaintive and at least two witnesses, via the trial chairperson to the hosting club respectively the LAO.
The acceptance of a complaint does not automatically lead to a revision of the judge’s evaluation. A decision is made by the corresponding committee of the LAO. The LAO can pass the complaint on to the Working Dog Committee who will make a final decision.
The trial participant must meet the entry deadline for the event. With the submission of the entry form the participant agrees to pay the entry fee. In the event that the participant cannot participate in the trial for whatever reason he/she must immediately contact the trial chairperson. The trial participant must comply with any veterinary and animal protection regulations that are in effect for that region. The participant must follow the instructions of the judge as well as those of the trial chairperson. The handler must show the dog in a sporty and faultless manner. A handler must show his dog in all sections of the trial, regardless of the outcome in any one section. The trial ends with the announcement of the final scores (closing ceremony) and handing-out of the scorebooks.
The judge has the right to terminate a dog’s trial performance, even against the wishes of the handler, if the dog is injured or otherwise incapacitated. If a handler pulls a dog from a trial the scorebook will be marked “insufficient - dog was pulled”. If a dog is pulled from the trial on grounds of an obvious injury or a letter from a veterinarian is presented, certifying the dog’s illness, the scorebook will be marked “pulled due to illness”. The judge has the right to disqualify a handler on grounds of poor sportsmanship, carrying of motivational objects, violations against the trial regulations or animal protection rights or other ill-natured actions.
An entry in the scorebook must be made in any case, giving the reason for premature dismissal from the trial. In case of disqualification, all awarded points will be taken away.
The handler must carry a leash throughout the entire trial. This includes that the dog must wear a simple, single-row, loose-fitting chain collar in the neutral position (dead ring) at all times. Any other collars or additional collars (such as leather or tick-collars, etc.) are not permitted during the trial. The leash can be carried so it is invisible for the dog or the handler can put the leash over his/her shoulder from top left to bottom right.
Verbal commands are brief orders given in a normal voice, consisting of one single word. The commands can be given in any language. The same command must be used for the same task at all times.
If several participants are entered at the same trial level, starting positions are to be determined through a draw.
On the day of the trial the dog must have reached the required age. No exceptions are allowed.
All dogs, regardless of their size, breed or proof of pedigree are allowed to participate. A handler is allowed to show in one trial per day. A handler is allowed to show no more than two dogs per trial. Dogs are only allowed to be exhibited in one trial per day. The LAO is allowed to determine a minimum number of participants for a trial.
Each degree level can be repeated as many times as desired. The examination levels are to be completed in sequence (level 1-2-3). A dog may only be shown at the next higher level upon passing the previous level. The age requirement must be taken into consideration. A dog must always be shown in the highest degree it has earned. An exception can be made in trails that are not connected with a qualification or formation.
Bitches in season may participate in all events. However, they must be kept apart from the rest of the participants. They will be shown according to schedule in part A of the trial. In all other phases they will be placed at the end of the starting order. They will be shown at the end of the trial. Pregnant and nursing females are excluded from the trial.
Sick and contagious animals are excluded from all events.
Before any trial starts, prior to the first examination phase, the dogs must undergo an impartiality test (temperament test). Part of the temperament test is the identity-inspection (examination and verification of the tattoo-number, chip, etc.).
Dogs that do not pass the temperament test are excluded from further participation in the trial and must be disqualified. Owner’s of dogs that are micro chipped, are responsible for providing the necessary equipment for the identity check.
The judge will continue to evaluate the temperament throughout the entire trial. The judge is obligated to immediately disqualify a dog from the trial if that dog shows a faulty temperament. An entry must be made in the scorebook, explaining the temperament fault. Dogs that were disqualified due to a temperament fault must be reported in writing to the appropriate committee of the LAO.
Conduct of the Temperament Test
A performance is evaluated in points and raitings (qualification). The ratings (qualification) and corresponding points must reflect the quality of the performance.
|maximum points||excellent||very good||good||satisfactory||insufficient|
|Excellent||= minimum 96%||or up to minus 4%|
|Very good||= 95 to 90%||or minus 5 to 10%|
|Good||= 89 to 80%||or minus 11 to 20%|
|Satisfactory||= 79 to 70%||or minus 21 to 30%|
|Insufficient||= below 70%||or minus 31 to 100%|
Only whole points shall be given in the overall rating of each complete phase. Partial points may be given for individual exercises. When adding the points upon completion of each phase and the result does not consist of a whole number the points awarded may be rounded up or down, depending on the overall impression.
In case of a tie, the highest score in phase C prevails. Should there still be a tie the points in phase B shall prevail. Scores that coincide in all three phases shall be listed as an equal placing.
If a dog leaves the handler or the field during the examination and does not return upon receiving three commands, the dog will be disqualified.
All points given up to the time of disqualification will be taken away. No ratings (qualifications) or points will be entered in the scorebook.
A degree can only be awarded if a dog achieves at least 70% of the total points in each phase of a trial.
|maximum points||excellent||very good||good||satisfactory||unsatisfactory|
|200 points (FH)||200-192||191-180||179-160||159-140||139-0|
The title of “International Working Champion” is awarded by the FCI after the handler applied for it through his/her LAO. To be eligible for the title, the following requirements apply: two CACIT or RCACIT separated by at least one year and one day, earned in two different countries under two different judges together with at least a “very good” at an FCI international show.
The CACIT and Reserve CACIT can be awarded at events sanctioned by the FCI. All LAO must be invited to a CACIT event. A minimum of two judges must be invited, one of them being from a country different from the organisers’ country. The awards are granted upon proposal of the judges. The CACIT and Reserve CACIT can only be awarded to dogs of breeds which appear on the FCI Breed Nomenclature as non-hunting working breeds and which have earned an “excellent” or “very good” in the test, in class IPO-3. The CACIT is not automatically linked to the placing achieved.
The awarding of the title of “National Working Champion” depends on the LAO.
Each participating dog must have a scorebook. The scorebook is issued according to the regulations of the handler’s corresponding organization. Only one scorebook may be issued per dog. The organization issuing the scorebook is to be held responsible for this. The trial results must be entered in the scorebook under any circumstances. The judge and, if there is a provision made in the scorebook, the trail chairperson must check the entry and verify the entry with his/her signature.
The owner of a dog is liable for any personal injury or material damage caused by his/her dog. Therefore, the owner must have adequate insurance. In case of an accident, the handler is liable for himself/herself and his/her dog throughout the event. The handler follows the instructions, given by the judge and the organizer, on his/her own free will and executes the instructions on his/her own risk.
On request of the judge or the trial secretary the handler must provide proof of proper vaccination (vaccination certificate).
The LAO is entitled to supervise. The LAO can assign a knowledgeable person to oversee an event to make certain the event is conducted in accordance with the regulations stated in the guidelines.
During a trial, the judge is supposed to evaluate the training level and if possible the quality of a dog (for example instinctive behavior, ability to cope with stress, selfconfidence and obedience). The judge can objectively evaluate what he/she visually and acoustically observes during the course of the trial.
This factor and the aspect of maintaining fair trial conditions throughout the trial (which means offering the same conditions for all participants, if possible) make it essential that the helper work gives the judge a clear picture of a dog’s performance.
Therefore, it cannot be left up to the helper how phase “C” is structured. Furthermore, the helper has to follow certain rules.
During the trial, the judge has to check the most important evaluation criteria concerning the individual elements of the exercises during phase “C” of the trial. These elements are for example the ability to cope with stress, self-confidence, instinctive behavior, obedience. Furthermore, he must evaluate the quality of the grip of the dogs that are shown. Therefore, in order for the judge to evaluate the quality of the grip, the helper must give the dog a chance to get a good grip on the sleeve.
Or, in order to evaluate the ability to cope with stress, it is necessary that the helper inflicts pressure on the dog through corresponding action. Therefore, it is desirable that the helpers perform the helper work in the most uniform manner possible, so that these elements can be evaluated.
“Hold and bark” (examination level 1-3)
The helper stands –not visible for handler and dog- with slightly angulated sleeve, motionless and without threatening body posture in the assigned blind. The sleeve serves as body protection. The helper is to watch the dog during the hold and bark. Additional motivation (agitation) as well as help of any kind are not permitted. The helper is to hold the soft stick on his/her side, pointing down. If a dog bothers or grips the helper, the helper may not react with any defensive movements.
“Prevention of an attempted escape of the helper” (examination level 1-3)
After the hold and bark exercise, the helper is called out of the blind by the handler. The helper steps out of the blind at a normal pace and takes position in a spot designated by the judge (marked escape position). The position assumed by the helper must allow the handler to put his/her dog in a down position to the side of the helper, in a spot designated by the judge, at a distance of about 5 paces from the helper, so that the dog can assume the down position on the side of the helper that is protected by the sleeve. It must be apparent to the handler in which direction the helper is going to move for the escape bite. Upon a signal from the judge, the helper makes a sudden attempt to escape at a fast pace and in a straight line, without displaying exaggerated or out of control movements. The protective sleeve is not to be moved around in addition to any normal movement to offer the dog an optimal bite. The helper may under no circumstances turn towards the dog during the escape. The helper may have the dog in his/her field of vision. The helper must refrain from pulling the sleeve away. As soon as the dog has a grip on the sleeve, the helper continues to run in a straight line while pulling the sleeve, while in motion, close to the body.
The judge determines how far the helper moves away for the escape. The helper stops the escape upon receiving a signal from the judge. An adequately energetic performance of the helper during the escape offers the judge an ideal opportunity for an evaluation. Any type of help offered by the helper, for example excessive offering of the sleeve before the dog engages, verbal agitation or hitting the soft stick against the pant leg of the protective suit before or during the escape, holding the sleeve without the necessary tension after the dog engages, slowing down as well as stopping the escape independently etc. is prohibited.
Stopping the exercise, see No. 8 (applies to all exercises)
“Defense of the dog during guarding phase” (examination level 1-3)
After the guarding phase, upon a signal from the judge, the helper makes an attack on the dog. The soft stick is to be utilized by making threatening motions with it above the protective sleeve, without hitting the dog. At the same time, the helper is attacking the dog frontally by driving the dog forward with corresponding resistance, without additional movement of the sleeve. The sleeve is to be held close to the body. Once the dog has a grip on the sleeve, the helper places the dog, out of motion, to the side and the pressure phase begins in a straight direction. The helper must drive all dogs in the same direction.
Therefore, the judge must position himself/herself in such a manner that it is possible to observe and evaluate how the dog acts while attacking, during the pressure phase, evaluate the grip, the release and the guarding phase. Driving the dog towards the handler is not permitted.
The hits with the soft stick are to be placed on the dog’s shoulders and in the area of the withers. The intensity of the stick hits has to be the same for all dogs. The first hit is applied after 4-5 paces, the second hit after 4-5 more paces during the pressure phase. After the second stick hit additional pressure, without stick hits, is to be demonstrated.
The judge determines the duration of the pressure phase. The helper stops the pressure phase, on a signal from the judge. An adequately energetic performance of the helper during the attack offers the judge an ideal opportunity for an evaluation. Any type of help offered by the helper, for example offering of the sleeve before the dog engages, verbal agitation or hitting the soft stick against the pant leg of the protective suit before the attack starts, holding the sleeve without the necessary tension after the dog engages and during the pressure phase, inconsistent intensity during the pressure phase and of the stick hits, stopping the attack independently if the dog shows an insufficient ability to cope with pressure etc. is prohibited.
Stopping the exercise see No. 8 (applies to all exercises)
“Back-transport” (examination level 2+3)
The helper demonstrates a back-transport over a distance of about 30 paces, at a normal pace, upon receiving an order from the handler. The judge determines the course of the transport. The helper is not allowed to make any sudden moves during the backtransport. The soft stick and the sleeve are to be carried in such a manner that they do not present an additional stimulation for the dog. The soft stick in particular is to be carried out of the dog’s sight. The helper is to move at the same pace for all dogs.
“Attack on the dog out of the back-transport” (examination level 2+3)
The attack out of the back-transport is performed out of motion, upon a signal from the judge. The helper performs the attack by making a dynamic left or right turn and running energetically towards the dog. The soft stick is utilized by making threatening motions above the sleeve. The protective sleeve is to be carried in front of the helper, close to the body. Any additional movement of the sleeve is to be avoided. Once the dog has a grip on the sleeve, the helper places the dog, out of motion, to the side and the pressure phase begins in a straight direction. The helper must drive all dogs in the same direction. Therefore, the judge must position himself/herself in such a manner that it is possible to observe and evaluate how the dog acts while attacking, during the pressure phase, evaluate the grip, the release and the guarding phase. Driving the dog towards the handler is not permitted.
The judge determines the duration of the pressure phase. On a signal from the judge, the helper stops the pressure phase. An adequately energetic performance of the helper during the attack offers the judge an ideal opportunity for an evaluation. Any type of help offered by the helper, for example the helper swerves extremely to one side before the dog engages, offering of the sleeve before the dog engages, verbal agitation or hitting the soft stick against the pant leg of the protective suit as the attack starts, holding the sleeve without the necessary tension after the dog engages and during the pressure phase, inconsistent intensity during the pressure phase, stopping the attack independently if the dog shows an insufficient ability to cope with pressure etc. is prohibited.
Stopping of the exercise see No. 8 (applies to all exercises)
“Attack on the dog out of motion” (examination level 2+3)
On a signal from the judge, the helper leaves the assigned blind and moves to the centreline at a normal walking pace (examination level 1)/ at a running pace (examination level 2+3). The handler orders the helper verbally to stop.
The helper ignores the instruction – and
The dog must be caught with an elastic sleeve position, without the helper coming to halt. When catching the dog, the handler must make a turn with his/her body –if necessary- to compensate for the dog’s momentum. Under no circumstances may the handler run around the dog. Once the dog has a grip on the sleeve, the helper places the dog, out of motion, to the side and the pressure phase begins in a straight direction. It must be prevented under any circumstances to overrun the dog. The helper must drive all dogs in the same direction. Therefore, the judge must position himself/herself in such a manner that it is possible to observe and evaluate how the dog acts while attacking, during the pressure phase, evaluate the grip, the release and the guarding phase. Driving the dog towards the handler is not permitted.
The judge determines the duration of the pressure phase. On a signal from the judge, the helper stops the pressure phase. An adequately energetic performance of the helper during the attack offers the judge an ideal opportunity for an evaluation. Any type of help offered by the helper, for example slowing down while attacking, catching the dog while standing still, the helper swerves extremely to one side before the dog engages, running around the dog, offering of the sleeve before the dog engages, holding the sleeve without the necessary tension after the dog engages and during the pressure phase, inconsistent intensity during the pressure phase, stopping the attack independently if the dog shows an insufficient ability to cope with pressure etc. is prohibited.
Stopping of the exercise see No. 8 (applies to all exercises)
“Stopping the exercise” (applies to all exercises)
The stopping of all defence exercises must be conducted in such a manner that the judge can observe the grip, the out and the guarding phase of the dog (do not stop the exercise with the back turned towards the judge, maintain eye contact with the judge). Upon stopping the defence exercise, the helper must reduce the resistance against the dog. The helper is to stop the stimulation through movement without noticeably relaxing the arm with the sleeve. The protective sleeve is not to be carried high but remains in the same position it was in during the previous exercise.
The soft stick is to be held on the side of the body pointing downward, invisible for the dog. The helper is not allowed to provide any help for the dog to release. After the dog releases, the helper maintains eye contact with the dog. Additional stimulation as well as help of any kind is not permitted.
If the dog circles the helper during the holding phase, in order to keep an eye on the dog, the helper is allowed to turn with the dog, slowly and without any sudden movements.
“Insecurities and failure of the dog”
The helper has to continue to pressure a dog that does not engage or comes off the sleeve during a pressure phase, until the judge terminates the exercise.
The helper is under no circumstances allowed to provide any kind of help or stop the exercise independently. Dogs that do not release may not be influenced by the helper through body posture or movement of the soft stick to release. The helper is not allowed to make dogs, that have a tendency to leave the helper during the holding phase, stay with the helper by stimulating the dog. In all the exercises or parts of the exercises, the helper must present himself/herself active or neutral in accordance with the trial regulations. If a dog bumps or grips the helper during the holding phase, the helper must avoid to make defensive motions.
"TSB" - Evaluation: (applies to all examination levels)
The “TSB”-Evaluation should serve the purpose of describing a dog’s character trades if the dog should be used for breeding purposes. The “TSB”-Evaluation does neither influence the trial result nor does it influence a formation. A dog must complete at least one protection exercise to receive a “TSB”-Evaluation.
The ratings pronounced (a), present (vh) and not sufficient (ng) describe the following characteristics:
Triebveranlagung = instinctive behaviour, Selbstsicherheit = self-confidence, Belastbarkeit = ability to cope with stress.
TSB “pronounced”: Is given to a dog that shows strong willingness to work, clear instinctive behavior, determination in its performance, presents itself in a self-confident manner, pays undivided attention and is capable to cope with a severe amount of stress.
TSB “present”: Is given to a dog that has limitations concerning its willingness to work, instinctive behavior, selfconfidence, attentiveness and ability to cope with stress.
TSB “not sufficient”: Is given to a dog with insufficient willingness to work, insufficient instinctive behavior, missing self-confidence and insufficient ability to cope with stress.
The LAO is entitled to expand (modify) general regulations for their area (country). For example rules concerning permits, veterinary requirements, animal protection decrees or sanitary regulations can be adjusted to a country’s differences in legislation. Handlers may give verbal commands in their own language.
The rules and regulations stated in the “Pflichtenhefte” (Set of Specifications) are in effect for the FCI World Championship. The Commission for Utility Dogs is in charge of publishing and revising the “Pflichtenhefte” (Set of Specifications).